Now there is evidence of an important effect in sports: "The home-field advantage, it turns out, is a sizable advantage. In a recent research report on the World Cup, Goldman Sachs (GS) calculated that the home-field advantage is worth 0.4 goals a game, which, in a sport heavy on 1-0 and 2-1 scores, is a huge factor."
And who does the crowd affect more, the team or the referee?: "The crowd does have an effect, but not necessarily on the team. A few social scientists have tried to look at the issue of home-field advantage empirically, and they’ve found that the crowd’s role in the phenomenon is that they sway the referees."
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Referee tilts heavily toward Brazil in World Cup-opening win over Croatia | SI.com
SAO PAULO – Through the empty corner sections of the stands, fireworks could be seen flashing in the sky over Sao Paulo. The vast majority of the fans in the stadium went home in a celebratory mood. This was, for Brazil, for FIFA, for everybody concerned with the smooth running of the World Cup and the eventual coronation of Neymar in the Maracana in a month’s time, the perfect start to the tournament.